In KS1 maths, pupils should develop their ability to recognise, describe, draw, compare and sort different shapes and use related vocabulary. Teaching should also involve using a range of measures to describe and compare different quantities such as length, mass, capacity/volume, time and money.

By the end of KS1, pupils should know the number bonds to 20 and be precise in using and understanding place value. An emphasis on practice at KS1 stage will aid fluency.

Pupils should read and spell maths vocabulary, at a level consistent with their increasing word reading and spelling knowledge at KS1.

(NB. a searchable KS1 Maths Curriculum with related resources for teachers and pupils is available on the primary maths resources page.)

## Year 1 programme of study

### Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

• count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
• count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of 2s, 5s and 10s
• given a number, identify 1 more and 1 less
• identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least
• read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils practise counting (1, 2, 3…), ordering (for example, first, second, third…), and to indicate a quantity (for example, 3 apples, 2 centimetres), including solving simple concrete problems, until they are fluent.

Pupils begin to recognise place value in numbers beyond 20 by reading, writing, counting and comparing numbers up to 100, supported by objects and pictorial representations.

They practise counting as reciting numbers and counting as enumerating objects, and counting in 2s, 5s and 10s from different multiples to develop their recognition of patterns in the number system (for example, odd and even numbers), including varied and frequent practice through increasingly complex questions.

They recognise and create repeating patterns with objects and with shapes.

### Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

• read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (−) and equals (=) signs
• represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
• add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including 0
• solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ? − 9
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils memorise and reason with number bonds to 10 and 20 in several forms (for example, 9 + 7 = 16; 16 − 7 = 9; 7 = 16 − 9). They should realise the effect of adding or subtracting 0. This establishes addition and subtraction as related operations.

Pupils combine and increase numbers, counting forwards and backwards.

They discuss and solve problems in familiar practical contexts, including using quantities. Problems should include the terms: put together, add, altogether, total, take away, distance between, difference between, more than and less than, so that pupils develop the concept of addition and subtraction and are enabled to use these operations flexibly.

### Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

• solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Through grouping and sharing small quantities, pupils begin to understand: multiplication and division; doubling numbers and quantities; and finding simple fractions of objects, numbers and quantities.

They make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in 2s, 5s and 10s.

### Number - fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

• recognise, find and name a half as 1 of 2 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
• recognise, find and name a quarter as 1 of 4 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils are taught half and quarter as ‘fractions of’ discrete and continuous quantities by solving problems using shapes, objects and quantities. For example, they could recognise and find half a length, quantity, set of objects or shape. Pupils connect halves and quarters to the equal sharing and grouping of sets of objects and to measures, as well as recognising and combining halves and quarters as parts of a whole.

### Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

• compare, describe and solve practical problems for:
• lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half]
• mass/weight [for example, heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than]
• capacity and volume [for example, full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter]
• time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later]
• measure and begin to record the following:
• lengths and heights
• mass/weight
• capacity and volume
• time (hours, minutes, seconds)
• recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes
• sequence events in chronological order using language [for example, before and after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening]
• recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years
• tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

The pairs of terms: mass and weight, volume and capacity, are used interchangeably at this stage.

Pupils move from using and comparing different types of quantities and measures using non-standard units, including discrete (for example, counting) and continuous (for example, liquid) measurement, to using manageable common standard units.

In order to become familiar with standard measures, pupils begin to use measuring tools such as a ruler, weighing scales and containers.

Pupils use the language of time, including telling the time throughout the day, first using o’clock and then half past.

### Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

• recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including:
• 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles]
• 3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres]
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils handle common 2-D and 3-D shapes, naming these and related everyday objects fluently. They recognise these shapes in different orientations and sizes, and know that rectangles, triangles, cuboids and pyramids are not always similar to each other.

### Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

• describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three-quarter turns
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils use the language of position, direction and motion, including: left and right, top, middle and bottom, on top of, in front of, above, between, around, near, close and far, up and down, forwards and backwards, inside and outside.

Pupils make whole, half, quarter and three-quarter turns in both directions and connect turning clockwise with movement on a clock face.

## Year 2 programme of study

### Number - number and place value

Pupils should be taught to:

• count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in 10s from any number, forward and backward
• recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (10s, 1s)
• identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line
• compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
• read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
• use place value and number facts to solve problems
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Using materials and a range of representations, pupils practise counting, reading, writing and comparing numbers to at least 100 and solving a variety of related problems to develop fluency. They count in multiples of 3 to support their later understanding of a third.

As they become more confident with numbers up to 100, pupils are introduced to larger numbers to develop further their recognition of patterns within the number system and represent them in different ways, including spatial representations.

Pupils should partition numbers in different ways (for example, 23 = 20 + 3 and 23 = 10 + 13) to support subtraction. They become fluent and apply their knowledge of numbers to reason with, discuss and solve problems that emphasise the value of each digit in two-digit numbers. They begin to understand 0 as a place holder.

### Number - addition and subtraction

Pupils should be taught to:

• solve problems with addition and subtraction:
• using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
• applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
• recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
• add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
• a two-digit number and 1s
• a two-digit number and 10s
• 2 two-digit numbers
• show that addition of 2 numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of 1 number from another cannot
• recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils extend their understanding of the language of addition and subtraction to include sum and difference.

Pupils practise addition and subtraction to 20 to become increasingly fluent in deriving facts such as using 3 + 7 = 10; 10 − 7 = 3 and 7 = 10 − 3 to calculate 30 + 70 = 100; 100 − 70 = 30 and 70 = 100 − 30. They check their calculations, including by adding to check subtraction and adding numbers in a different order to check addition (for example, 5 + 2 + 1 = 1 + 5 + 2 = 1 + 2 + 5). This establishes commutativity and associativity of addition.

Recording addition and subtraction in columns supports place value and prepares for formal written methods with larger numbers.

### Number - multiplication and division

Pupils should be taught to:

• recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
• calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
• show that multiplication of 2 numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of 1 number by another cannot
• solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils use a variety of language to describe multiplication and division.

Pupils are introduced to the multiplication tables. They practise to become fluent in the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables and connect them to each other. They connect the 10 multiplication table to place value, and the 5 multiplication table to the divisions on the clock face. They begin to use other multiplication tables and recall multiplication facts, including using related division facts to perform written and mental calculations.

Pupils work with a range of materials and contexts in which multiplication and division relate to grouping and sharing discrete and continuous quantities, to arrays and to repeated addition. They begin to relate these to fractions and measures (for example, 40 ÷ 2 = 20, 20 is a half of 40). They use commutativity and inverse relations to develop multiplicative reasoning (for example, 4 × 5 = 20 and 20 ÷ 5 = 4).

### Number - fractions

Pupils should be taught to:

• recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3 , 1/4 , 2/4 and 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity
• write simple fractions, for example 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils use fractions as ‘fractions of’ discrete and continuous quantities by solving problems using shapes, objects and quantities. They connect unit fractions to equal sharing and grouping, to numbers when they can be calculated, and to measures, finding fractions of lengths, quantities, sets of objects or shapes. They meet 3/4 as the first example of a non-unit fraction.

Pupils should count in fractions up to 10, starting from any number and using the 1/2 and 2/4 equivalence on the number line (for example, 1 1/4 , 1 2/4 (or 1 1/2 ), 1 3/4 , 2). This reinforces the concept of fractions as numbers and that they can add up to more than 1.

### Measurement

Pupils should be taught to:

• choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
• compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =
• recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value
• find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money
• solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
• compare and sequence intervals of time
• tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
• know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils use standard units of measurement with increasing accuracy, using their knowledge of the number system. They use the appropriate language and record using standard abbreviations.

Comparing measures includes simple multiples such as ‘half as high’; ‘twice as wide’.

Pupils become fluent in telling the time on analogue clocks and recording it.

They become fluent in counting and recognising coins. They read and say amounts of money confidently and use the symbols £ and p accurately, recording pounds and pence separately.

### Geometry - properties of shapes

Pupils should be taught to:

• identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides, and line symmetry in a vertical line
• identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces
• identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid]
• compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils handle and name a wide variety of common 2-D and 3-D shapes including: quadrilaterals and polygons and cuboids, prisms and cones, and identify the properties of each shape (for example, number of sides, number of faces). Pupils identify, compare and sort shapes on the basis of their properties and use vocabulary precisely, such as sides, edges, vertices and faces.

Pupils read and write names for shapes that are appropriate for their word reading and spelling.

Pupils draw lines and shapes using a straight edge.

### Geometry - position and direction

Pupils should be taught to:

• order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
• use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise)
Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

Pupils should work with patterns of shapes, including those in different orientations.

Pupils use the concept and language of angles to describe ‘turn’ by applying rotations, including in practical contexts (for example, pupils themselves moving in turns, giving instructions to other pupils to do so, and programming robots using instructions given in right angles).

### Statistics

Pupils should be taught to:

• interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and tables
• ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity